Pulmonary Hypertension, Learn About Pulmonary Hypertension Prognosis, Causes, Symptoms

Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition relating to blood pressure and the veins and arteries of the heart, this condition simply describes how hard it is for blood to flow through the pulmonary veins, arterioles, artery because of their narrow in size thereby causing the heart to pump more blood(increase blood pressure) so as to allow the passage of blood to flow through. Know that as the heart increases pressure, the muscles present in the heart begin to weaken and thereby failing.

Pulmonary Hypertension

There are some common signs that medical personnel uses to ascertain pulmonary hypertension, signs and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension include:

  • Fatigue
  • Increased heart rate
  • Sharp chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Swelling of the foot
  • Syncope

Know that as this condition advances the symptoms also worsens so that is why it is advisable to go for medical check up regularly so as the know the current condition of your heart.

Major Causes Of Pulmonary Hypertension

The mechanism of blood flow in a normal heart is quite simple, we all know that blood is being pumped by the heart's lower right chamber which is the right ventricle to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. In which the lungs then takes oxygen from the blood and releases carbon dioxide. After which the oxygenated blood flows to the left portion of te heart via the pulmonary artery. Now the difference between a healthy heart and a heart suffering from pulmonary hypertension is that; in a normal heart, the blood flow is quite easy and does not require extra effort from the heart in order for the blood to pass through the tiny arteries hence making blood pressure be in its minimal stage. But the case is reverse in a heart suffering from pulmonary hypertension, here, the heart has to carry out extra energy in pumping blood so as to make them pass through the arteries to go to the lungs.

Kindly know that this sudden narrowness of the pulmonary arteries didn't just come like that, it is caused by certain diet, examples include when we intake too much fatty food, excess fat & oil tends to go to the pulmonary artery, block it(not entirely) hence causing the tiny arteries to be inflamed, and blood flow will be reduced. This is the simple mechanism behind pulmonary hypertension when the arteries are blocked, blood flow reduces, hence alerting the heart to pump more blood(increasing blood pressure) so as to push the blood t flow through the arteries.

There are five different types of Pulmonary hypertension depending on their causal factors. Types of pulmonary hypertension include;

Pulmonary arterial hypertension: This is also called idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is caused by a gene mutation, and it's common among families hence otherwise called heritable pulmonary hypertension. The causes include diet, congenital abnormalities, scleroderma, drugs.

Pulmonary hypertension(Caused by lung disease): These type of hypertension is caused by certain lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and others. It has also being associated with certain sleep disorders and high altitudes.

Pulmonary hypertension(Caused by blood clots)

Pulmonary hypertension(Ambiguous factors): This may be caused by certain blood disorders, tumors, blood clotting, mitochondrial storage disease and others.

Pulmonary hypertension(Caused by heart disease- left-side): Disease such as the aortic valve disease has been known to be the causal factor of the left-sided pulmonary hypertension. This is described as the situation where the lower heart chamber fails to pump blood.

Risk Factors Of Pulmonary Hypertension

You are in higher chances of developing pulmonary hypertension someday if you belong to one of the below categories.
  1. You're obese
  2. Someone in your family once had pulmonary hypertension? oh, no..you're in a big risk, my dear.
  3. You live in an area that has a high altitude.
  4. You take hard drugs such as Erythroxylon coca, Cannabis sativa, and others.
  5. You make use of depressant drugs for appetite.

How To Diagnose Pulmonary Hypertension

For pulmonary hypertension to be diagnosed, series of tests and scans must be carried out on you. These include a blood test, pulmonary function test, ECG, X-ray scan(chest), Catheterization and Echocardiogram. Medical experts also go through your family health profile, conduct a physical examination on you and ask you about the signs and symptoms you face. These signs & symptoms determine how severe your condition is and the necessary approach to best solve it be medication or surgical. Pulmonary arterial hypertension can be diagnosed via echocardiogram. Measurement of pressure is taken using the swan-Graz catheter to access the right side of the heart. 

Another diagnostic tool is the cardiac catheterization which measures your cardiac output. This method is to measure the severity of the disease and it has been dubbed to be more efficient than the pulmonary arterial pressure. The mean value of a normal pulmonary arterial pressure range between  8–20 mm Hg (1066–2666 Pa) when in a relaxed state. One is diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension when his/her own pulmonary arterial pressure is more than 3000 Pa while at rest.

Treatment Of Pulmonary Hypertension

There are various treatments used in controlling pulmonary hypertension. The use of blood thinners, diuretics, digoxins, oxygen, anti-coagulants, sildenafil and calcium channel blockers have all been used in successfully treating pulmonary hypertension. Note there are various treatments available for different types of pulmonary hypertension(PH). Depending on the type of PH you're suffering from, you need to go to your healthcare center, request for a thorough medical review/test so as to be diagnosed properly and placed under the right medication. People suffering from severe pulmonary hypertension usually go through open-heart surgeries where the doctor will have to relieve the pressure you're facing on the right side of your heart by simply creating an opening between the atria - A procedure known as Atrial septostomy. There may be heart or lung transplant in the situation where the heart or lung has been damaged beyond repair. This is common among young people. The main disadvantage associated with heart or lung translate is that the donor and the receptor's organs must match in order to avoid the risk of getting rejected by your body system which may cause some really serious complications.

Pulmonary Hypertension Prognosis

Pulmonary Hypertension Prognosis has a median survival rate of 2-3 years right from the time it has been diagnosed to the time of death. In most cases, the cause of death is usually associated with failure in the right ventricle. Lately, with recent innovations in medicine and its application, the survival rate of people suffering from pulmonary hypertension is on the increase. Although, currently the case is otherwise among pregnant women suffering from PH, being that, the pregnancy itself is described as the main reason for such flaw.

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